5 ECTS credits
140 h study time
Offer 1 with catalog number 4004690ENR for all students in the 1st semester at a (E) Master - advanced level.
1) Physical models of transistors
- MOSFETs: modelling of weak, moderate and strong inversion, second-order effects due to downscaling of transistors (e.g. velocity saturation, short-channel effects). Hence, we go much further than the elementary quadratic model of a MOS transistor. Further, all elements of the small-signal equivalent circuit are considered. In order to make a better link to circuits, all aspects of the transistor behavior are explained in terms of voltages and electrostatic potentials, rather than energy diagrams, as is the case in many device courses (e.g. 'Electronic components 1' from the VUB).
2) Analysis of elementary transistor circuits
In IR-ETRO-3504b, a simple explanation has been given for the operation of a few elementary circuits (all one-transistor circuits, differential pair, current mirror, cascode stage, CMOS inverter, differential pair with active load, ...). Here, the CMOS circuits are studied much more in detail. Further, more attention is paid to an integrated realization of these elementary circuits (e.g. as part of a larger analog IC), rather than to a discrete realization. Further, mismatches between corresponding circuit elements in differential circuits are studied. A good insight in elementary circuits is very valuable for a good understanding of larger and/or more complicated analog (integrated) circuits such as operational amplifiers.
3) Operational Amplifiers (opamps) and operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs)
A few widely used CMOS configurations are studied, such as a two-stage OTA with Miller compensation and a balanced OTA with compensation by the load capacitance at the output. For these circuits an analysis is performed of the low-frequency small-signal behavior, frequency response, gain bandwidth product, stability, slew rate, common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), power supply rejection ratio, noise behavior, common-mode input range, output swing, offset and influence of mismatches.
4) The practical session: Going through the complete design process of an analog integrated circuit. There is a practical session on the design of a CMOS operational amplifier as part of a bigger system (e.g. an active filter). The students make this project in groups of two persons. This comprises the design of a given fixed topology of an operational amplifier. This topology is analyzed using hand calculations. After an analysis the transistors are sized using the equations generated in the analysis phase. Next, this design is simulated and layout aspects are considered.
The students have to write a design report to prove that they master the design by justifying the design choices that they made.
5) Exercises: preparing the students for the practical session on opamp design.
6) Measurement lab session: in the previous year, as part of the course “Electronics” (IR-ETRO-3504b), a small CMOS circuit has been designed and submitted for fabrication. This circuit is measured in a lab session.
Een elektronische versie van de cursus (pdf en powerpoint slides) wordt aan de studenten gegeven voor aanvang van de cursus. Dit materiaal kan ook bekomen worden van de lesgever via e-mail.
An electronic version of the course (powerpoint slides and a text) is distributed to the students before the first course. This material can also be asked from the teacher via e-mail.
Complementary study material:
Paul Gray et al., "Analysis and design of analog integrated circuits," 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley, 2001.
(very well readible introductory work to the design of analog integrated circuits. Emphasis is mainly on circuits with bipolar transistors, but in the last version the amount of CMOS circuits has increased.)
Kenneth Laker and Willy Sansen, "Design of analog integrated circuits and systems", Mc Graw Hill, 1994.
(this book presents an in-depth analysis of elementary transistor circuits (both in MOS and in bipolar); opamps are treated in more detail than in the book of Gray & Meyer. Also, the design of active filters (both continuous time and switched capacitors) is discussed.)
Yannis P. Tsividis, "Operation and Modeling of the MOS Transistor," Mc Graw-Hill International Editions, 1988.
(excellent up-to-date book on the operation of MOS transistors, useful both for designers as for device specialists)
Behzad Razavi, "RF microelectronics", Prentice Hall, 1998.
(very well readible and structured book on high-frequency (RF) integrated circuits. The book covers both architectures of transmitters and receivers and the subblocks of the architectures (low-noise amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, power amps, ...))
Thomas Lee, "The design of CMOS radio-frequency integrated circuits," Cambridge, 1998.
(very well readible work about high-frequency (RF) integrated circuits. Covers a boader range than Razavi, but little computations)
Piet Wambacq en Willy Sansen, "Distortion analysis of analog integrated circuits," Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998.
(introduction to the nonlinear behavior of analog ICs)
Design of Analog Filters, Passive, Active RC and Switched Capacitor, Rolf Schaumann, Mohammed S. Ghausi, Kenneth R. Laker, Prentice Hall, 1990
(reference work for the design of active and passive filters)
Gray M. Miller, "Modern Electronic Communication", Prentice-Hall International, 1993
Clifton G. Fonstad, "Microelectronic Devices and Circuits", Mc Graw-Hill International Editions, 1994.
Except for the aspects of realisation and the usage of computer-aided-design (CAD) tools, the course on Electronic circuits is the last item in the basic engineering education in Electronics at the VUB. It is expected that the students acquire deeper understanding of the basic concepts explained in the course "Electronics" (IR-ETRO-3504b) and that moreover new insights are acquired concerning noise modelling, high-frequency operation, power dissipation, nonlinear distortion. With this knowledge it should be feasible to design non-trivial circuits using computer simulation programs. The course “Analog Electronics” is also an introduction to the course on 'Electronic Design and Realisation Techniques' (IR-ETRO-7251), which describes computer aided design tools and specific problems associated to the choice of a particular implementation technique of an analog or mixed-signal system.
After this course the students should be able to understand an analog electronic circuit. Students should be able to design independently an analog integrated circuit with the complexity of an operational amplifier in a modern CMOS technology (say 90 nm and beyond). Students should be able to determine the size and the operating region of a transistor based on the requirements of the analog integrated circuit.
Students should be able to calculate the transfer function of a linearized analog integrated circuit of moderate size and to analyze the frequency behavior using poles and zeros of the transfer function. Students should have a deep insight in the operation of elementary transistor circuits.
The final grade is composed based on the following categories:
Oral Exam determines 67% of the final mark.
PRAC Practical Assignment determines 33% of the final mark.
Within the Oral Exam category, the following assignments need to be completed:
Within the PRAC Practical Assignment category, the following assignments need to be completed:
Het examen is een open boek examen, wat betekent dat de studenten het cursusmateriaal niet hoeven te reproduceren. De nadruk ligt eerder op het begrijpen en het kunnen gebruiken van het cursusmateriaal, om bij voorbeeld nieuwe circuits te analyzeren. In dat opzicht omvat een van de examenvragen steeds de analyse van een circuit dat onbekend is voor de student. Met de ervaring opgedaan bij de studie van het vak, moet de student in staat zijn het onbekende circuit te begrijpen en de werking ervan te analyzeren. Verder omvat het examen een interview over de gevolgde ontwerpstrategie van het ontwerp gemaakt in de praktische ontwerpoefening.
The exam is with open books, meaning that the students do not have to "learn by heart" the contents of the course. Instead, they need to be able to understand and use the study material. One of the questions comprises the analysis of a circuit that is unknown to the student. With the experience built up during the study of the course, the student should be able to understand the given circuit and to analyze its performance.
Further, the exam treats the practical design exercise: the students are interviewed about the way they have designed their circuit and it is checked if they really understand the design
This offer is part of the following study plans:
Master of Electronics and Information Technology Engineering: Standaard traject (only offered in Dutch)
Master of Photonics Engineering: Standaard traject (only offered in Dutch)