9 ECTS credits
250 h study time
Offer 1 with catalog number 1024071ANR for all students in the 2nd semester at a (A) Bachelor - preliminary level.
The course is structured in 7 topics.
The HOC sessions (interactive lectures – 66 hours) cover these topics in the sequence as given above.
The WPO sessions (guided and interactive exercise sessions – 18 hours) illustrate the subjects dealt with during the lectures. These exercise sessions aim to develop the scientific approach to problem solving. The exercise sessions also deal with actual practical applications of the theories explained during the lectures.
The SELF-part (exercises to be solved individually using an on-line tool – 27 hours) aims to prepare the student for the WPO sessions and also aims to permanently evaluate whether the student has developed understanding of the subject matter dealt with during the WPO sessions, as well to prepare the student for the examination part that evaluates the capacity to solve problems.
The notes taken by the student during the lectures are the most important study material.
Copies of the slides used by Prof. Berghmans during the lectures are made available on the CANVAS platform, as well as recordings of HOC- and WPO-sessions. These serve as supporting study material. The Overkoepelende StudentencursusDienst (OSD) also provides printed copies of the slides.
The handbook that is compulsory for the course is "Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, Fifth Edition", Douglas C. Giancoli (Pearson Education, Inc.) - cost of approximately 85 EURO. The slides often refer to chapters and paragraphs from this handbook and they frequently use illustrations taken from this handbook. When purchasing this book at VUB's Standaard Student Shop, the student receives an access code that is required to access Pearson Education's "MyLab and Mastering" tool, which is accessible by ways of the CANVAS platform (see below).
The exercices dealt with during the WPO sessions are also made available on CANVAS, together with example questions from earlier written examinations. These exercices also often refer to the handbook. 1 or 2 exercise sessions can be taught entirely in English in order to familiarize the students with English physics vocabulary, in accordance with the vocabulary used in the English handbook.
For the SELF-part, the students are required to solve exercises online on the Pearson Education's MyLab and Mastering tool learning platform. They get access to this platform where they can register to the "course-ID" of Physics, using the access code that they have received with the purchase of the handbook. Students get the opportunity to extend the registration period to a maximum duration of 4 years. It is the responsibility of the student to order the book in due time at the VUB Standaard Boekhandel to obtain the required access code in advance of the due date for the first first online exercise session of the SELF-part.
To prepare for the theory-part of the examination, a list of thematic questions (see also "Additional info regarding evaluation") is made available on CANVAS. This list essentially details the specific learning outcomes.
Depending on the situation, a mixed interactive HOC/WOP and online HOW/WPO is implemented. In exceptional circumstances and should the enforcement of sanitary regulations prevent the organisation of interactive HOC and WPO sessions, these will be replaced by recordings of the sessions that will be made available by ways of CANVAS. Students can consult these recordings anytime.
A weekly planning will be provided on CANVAS to inform the students about the subject matter they should study in a given week.
This is a course that targets students in Engineering and in Science - Mathematics (Profile Physics 1), for whom understanding, and knowledge of physics is essential in their curriculum and this for several reasons.
First, the essence of physics is to construct models of reality, and model construction is the core of any science that transcends the purely descriptive level. In few other branches of (natural) sciences than physics, the predictions of models reach that far beyond our daily observation capacity. In addition, physics is a basic science that describes the structure of matter (in terms of atoms and molecules), and the interactions and energy exchanges between material particles and radiation.
This course aims, together with the other courses of the bachelor years, to train the understanding and knowledge of major scientific phenomena and the related theories that the physicist and the engineer need today. This is required not only to be able to develop and refine existing technology, but also to get a better grasp on reality better and to enable the students to creatively contribute to the scientific / technological revolutions of the 21st century.
The aim is not only to provide students with scientific knowledge, insights and skills, but also to convey notions of the history of physics and skills in reading scientific texts in English.
General learning outcomes:
* The student has a basic knowledge and understanding of the main paradigms of physics. He/she knows the limitations of these theories and knows in what circumstances they can be applied.
* The student can model physical problems using techniques from physics.
* The student can read and understand scientific literature at his level and standard works with physics oriented content.
* The student is able to understand scientific English at his/her level
* The student has a basic understanding of the different paradigms in physics and is able to independently acquire further knowledge about these paradigms
* The student can work properly with units, orders of magnitude and dimensions of physical and other variables.
* The student is able to model a simple physical problem and to interpret and analyze this model.
* The student has a basic understanding of the scientific method, and of the relevance of physics in other fields of science and society.
*The student has knowledge of and understands scientific principles and the methodology of classcial physics, including specificities of their applications in the domain of engineering sciences;
* The student is familiar with the use of mathematical techniques in physics, such as vectors, derivatives, integrals, vector operators and complex numbers, and can give physically interpretations to mathematical expressions;
* The student has a critical attitude towards his own results and those of others;
* The student has a the ability to formulate correct and complete answers to problems encompassing both the theoretical and practical parts of the course under time pressure.
Specific learning outcomes:
the students can answer the following questions and make exercises on related concepts after successfully completing the examination. These questions are made available on the CANVAS platform to allow the students to prepare themselves for the oral examination.
1. Define a "wave" and classify waves in the two big families that we have extensively used in the course. How do you define a plane monochromatic wave? Write the general expression of such wave and demonstrate that it satisfies the wave equation. Find the general solution to this equation and explain.
2. What are plane waves and spherical waves? Describe the general mathematical expressions for plane waves and spherical waves (you will receive the expression of the Laplacian in spherical coordinates from the Professor). Explain.
3. Examine standing waves and resonance waves on a string. What are harmonics? What are beats? What is de beat-frequency?
4. Determine the speed of propagation of a transverse perturbation on a stretched string. Do this in two ways. Determine also the energy carried by a wave on this string. Discuss.
5. Discuss the Doppler effect. Give applications in today's technology and cosmology: what is the difference between the "normal" and the “relativistic” Doppler effect. What is the Mach number?
6. Specify the intrinsic definition of the divergence of a vector field, discuss its meaning and give at least two examples of a natural law in which the divergence plays an important role. Do the same for the rotation of a vector field. Make the transition from the integral to the local form of those laws (and/ or vice versa). Give the intrinsic definition of the gradient of a scalar field, discuss the meaning of the gradient, and give examples of at least two natural laws in which the gradient plays an important role. List and demonstrate the properties of a gradient.
7. Specify Coulomb's law for the force that two-point charges exert on each other. Show that electrical interactions, if they exist, are always very much larger than the effects of gravitational interactions. Calculate the electric field of a dipole (along the axis of the dipole and in the perpendicular plane). Give and discuss Gauss’ law in integral and local form. How do you transform from one form into the other?
8. Discuss Gauss’ Law in integral and local form and how you transform from one into the other. Use this to obtain the electric field inside and outside a dielectric sphere with a homogeneously distributed charge density. Demonstrate that a spherically symmetric charge distribution generates an electric field that is similar to that of a point charge in the region outside of the charge distribution. Discuss the behaviour of the charge distribution of the free charge carriers in a conductor in electrostatic equilibrium. What are the implications for the associated electric field?
9. Discuss Gauss’ Law in integral and local form and how transform from into the other. Use this to calculate the electric field generated by an infinitely long straight wire with a homogeneously distributed charge density. What is a capacitor? Calculate the electric field, the potential difference, and the capacitance of a long coaxial cable.
10. What is the electrostatic potential (give the definition and physical meaning)? Starting from Coulomb's law, calculate the electrostatic potential generated by a point charge Q and by an electric dipole (define). Compare. How can you calculate the electric field from the potential?
11. Define an electric dipole. Calculate the moment of force (syn. torque) and the potential energy of an electric dipole in an external (homogenous) electrical field. Sketch qualitatively what happens to a dipole in an inhomogeneous electric field. Please explain qualitatively how Van der Waals forces lead to attraction between uncharged molecules.
12. Define an electric dipole. Calculate the torque on and the potential energy of an electric dipole in an external electric field. Do the same for a magnetic dipole (syn. magnetic moment) in an external magnetic field. Give applications.
13. What is a capacitor? Calculate the electric field, the potential difference, and the capacitance of a planar capacitor. Also calculate the energy stored in a planar capacitor. What happens if there is a dielectric between the plates of a capacitor? Is there a difference between Gauss’ Law in vacuum and in dielectrics? Explain and discuss.
14. Discuss the movement of a load in a constant magnetic field. Distinguish different cases (velocity perpendicular to the magnetic induction field, or not). Discuss the movement of a charge in a (constant) magnetic and electric field are perpendicular to each other. Give examples and / or applications for the different cases.
15. What is electrical current? What is Ohm’s law and what does it mean? Give and discuss the Drude model for the conductivity. Give the relationship between the resistance of a long straight wire and the resistivity (define) of the material.
16. How did we obtain the law of Biot & Savart? Use this law to obtain the magnetic induction field generated by an infinitely long straight current carrying wire. How did we obtain Ampère’s circuit law (in local and integral form, and the transformation from one into the other). Apply this law to derive the magnetic induction field generated by a solenoid.
17. Use the Lorentz force to calculate the force on a current carrying wire. Calculate, from the expression for the magnetic induction field of a long straight wire, the force between two current carrying wires, and define the unit of "Ampère". Calculate the forces on a current loop in a homogeneous magnetic field induction. Define the magnetic moment and calculate the torque on and the potential energy of such a magnetic moment in a uniform magnetic induction field. What is the relationship between magnetic moment and angular momentum? Discuss the operation of an AC and DC motor.
18. Specify and discuss the induction law of Faraday-Lenz. Describe at least three experiments that are explained by this law. Discuss applications. Transform from the integral into the local formulation. Discuss the operation of an alternator.
19. Define mutual inductance and self-inductance. Calculate the self-inductance L of a coil. Discuss the RL circuit and derive an expression for the energy stored in a current carrying coil. Discuss the analogy between the LC circuit and the harmonic oscillator.
20. Discuss how Maxwell added a correction to the Ampère’s circuit law (give the reasoning in integral and differential form). Then show that the electromagnetic field in vacuum behaves like a wave.
21. Demonstrate that the electromagnetic field in vacuum satisfies the wave equation. Derive the general solution for monochromatic plane waves and spherical waves. Interpret. Discuss the properties of plane monochromatic waves in vacuum.
22. Give the general conservation equation of electromagnetic energy (Poynting’s theorem). Interpret the different terms and give their dimensions. Give other examples of conservation laws.
23. Discuss the interference experiment of Young and describe how you can measure the wavelength of light using that experiment. Derive the conditions for constructive and destructive interference. Do this in the general case of interference of plane monochromatic waves. Also discuss the difference between coherent and incoherent superposition.
24. Discuss the observations and experiments that show that the exchange of energy between electromagnetic radiation and matter occurs in packets. Which universal laws do you know? Discuss the major hypotheses. What is the work function of a metal, what is the stopping potential? Give examples of applications.
25. Discuss these experiments and observations that show that photons have momentum and mass. Explain the relationship between momentum and wavelength. What types of masses do you know and use their equivalence to explain "gravitational redshift"?
26. Discuss the experiment of Michelson and Morley. What do you expect as a result of the experiment and what result do you get in the end?
27. Specify the problem of special relativity of Einstein. Derive the formulas of the Lorentz - transformations. What is the relation with the Minkowski space? In which case do the Lorentz transformations turn into the Galileo transformations? Summarize the consequences of the special theory of relativity.
28. Discuss extensively the special theory of relativity Einstein and its consequences. Also discuss the thought experiment of Einstein that leads to E = mc2.
29. Discuss the main properties of atomic nuclei and the concepts of mass defect and binding energy. How can energy be released from atomic nuclei. Discuss the Bethe - Weizsäcker formula for the mass of a nucleus (you will receive the formula from the Professor) and discuss all the terms therein. How can nuclei expire?
30. Explain radioactive decay and the decay mechanisms that you know. How do you look at decay on the nuclide chart? Specify properties of the different types of radiation. Explain the law that describes radioactive decay. What is half-life and "activity"? Explain how this can be used to estimate the age of an archaeological object by means of the 14C method.
31. Explain the concept of cross-section for nuclear reactions. What is the relation to Beer-Lambert's law? Give an application of this law.
Should this list be slightly adapted in view of considering possible changes in the subject matter dealt with during the semester, an adapted list will be made available via CANVAS a few weeks before the examination. Examples of previous examination problems are also made available on CANVAS.
The final grade is composed based on the following categories:
Other Exam determines 80% of the final mark.
SELF Practical Assignment determines 20% of the final mark.
Within the Other Exam category, the following assignments need to be completed:
Within the SELF Practical Assignment category, the following assignments need to be completed:
A single examination moment with a duration of 4 hours will be organized. It includes both a theory part and an exercise part. This examination moment is entirely written. The use of notes, lecture slides, handbook, pocket calculator or any other material is NOT allowed during this exam. The theory part questions the material dealt with during the lectures and the exercise part contains questions similar to those solved during the WPO sessions and during the SELF assignments. Each section is designed to take approximately 2 hours to complete - considering also the evaluation of the ability of the students to deal with time pressure - but students are free to divide the available time between both sections themselves.
Students that obtained an exemption for either the theory or exercise part of the examination have to answer their examination questions in maximum two and a half hours.
The distribution of the scores across the theory and exercises part is as follows.
1) The theory part accounts for 45% of the total score.
The theory part consists of two open questions and two multiple choice questions.
The open questions test the depth of knowledge of the subject matter, including all concepts, all relevant hypotheses, all physical laws, their derivations, the related figures and graphs, the dimensions and units, the discussions and physical interpretations of the laws and equations and the applications. They question the subject matter as indicated in a list of general thematic questions that is made available via CANVAS. The open questions also examine whether the students are able to provide a clear and structured synthetic answer to an extended question. To guide the students, the open questions are structured into sub-questions that specify which elements in the answer should definitely be addressed.
The multiple-choice questions test the insight and in-depth understanding of the subject matter. These multiple choice questions are designed in such a way that there is only 1 correct answer (unless stated otherwise) out of a choice of 4 possible answers.
2) The exercises part accounts for 35% of the total score.
The exercise part consists of problems similar to those covered during the WPO sessions and the SELF assignments of this course. In addition to the knowledge and understanding of the subject matter, this exercise part also evaluates whether the student is able to apply the subject matter in order to answer integrated questions and problems.
Transfer of the partial mark obtained for either the theory or exercise part of the exam in the event of a resit within the same academic year is possible if the student explicitly requests this before the start of the resit by e-mail to the lecturer and after consultation with the lecturer. This is possible insofar as more than 50% of the score for this part has been obtained. Transfer of the partial score from one academic year to the next academic year is also possible if the student explicitly requests this before the start of the 2nd semester of that next academic year by e-mail to the lecturer and after consultation with the lecturer.
The theory and exercises part of the written exam together account for 80% of the final score. The remaining 20% of the final score is obtained on the exercises solved via the www.pearsonmylabandmastering.com platform during the SELF assignments. The SELF assignments come with clearly indicated submission deadlines. Missing a submission deadline leads to a score of zero on the related SELF assignments.
Resit within the same academic year for the exercises on www.pearsonmylabandmastering.com is not possible. Transfer of the grade obtained on the exercises on www.pearsonmylabandmastering.com from one academic year to the next is possible if the student requests this by e-mail to the lecturer before the start of the 2nd semester and after consultation with and approval by the lecturer.
Unjustified or unannounced absence for the written examination leads to an absence score on the SELF assignments as well and therefore to an absence score as total score.
Students that transfer – within VUB – to the bachelor in Engineering after having followed the 2nd bachelor in Engineering:Architecture, and that have passed the course on Physics: Electromagnetism can, provided they request an exemption according to the regulations in force, be exempted from parts I, III en IV of the course on the written examination and associated SELF-assignments, but not from parts II, V, VI en VII.
This offer is part of the following study plans:
Bachelor of Engineering: Mechanical and Electrotechnical Engineering (only offered in Dutch)
Bachelor of Engineering: Civil Engineering (only offered in Dutch)
Bachelor of Engineering: Chemistry and Materials (only offered in Dutch)
Bachelor of Engineering: Electronics and Information Technology (only offered in Dutch)
Bachelor of Engineering: Electronics and Information Technology Profile Profile Computer Science (only offered in Dutch)
Bachelor of Engineering: verkort traject elektronica en informatietechnologie na vooropleiding industriële wetenschappen (only offered in Dutch)
Bachelor of Engineering: Startplan (only offered in Dutch)
Bachelor of Engineering: Biomedical Engineering (only offered in Dutch)
Bachelor of Mathematics and Data Science: Standaard traject (only offered in Dutch)